Welfare challenges faced by dogs in animal shelters

Dogs entering shelters face multiple challenges to their emotional and physical welfare; some of these issues stem from limitations of care available from the shelter organization, and some simply from the shelter’s environment.   This paper will attempt to identify these issues and their impact on the dogs, and will discuss possible ways to mitigate these challenges to improve the dogs’ welfare while they are kept in shelters.  This will conclude with possible ways of influencing the outcomes of their stays in these organizations.

Mid Term Assignment Shelter Dog Welfare Challenges

Northern Atlantic Right Whales vs Humans.

This paper will examine the ongoing conflict between humans and the North Atlantic right whale (NARW).  Although the impact of human whaling and ocean use on whale populations is well known and international conventions have been established to limit whaling, the NARW is still at risk due to human activity.  This case study will examine the background and history leading to this current conflict, the human activities currently endangering the whales, the human factors that are driving this situation and possible ways to identify and develop solutions.


Case Study Human-Wildlife Conflict for animal nerd

Prison Dogs

This is a paper that I did for the Anthrozoology Program at Canisius College.  It’s a review of available literature on the effectiveness of dog training programs in US prisons.


Despite their wide implementation in the United States, there has been very little substantive research done on prison dog programs (PDPs).  Many of the existent studies suffer from inherent flaws in scope and methodology, but do consistently demonstrate that the programs aid participating inmates in developing and improving communications and social skills resulting from interactions with the dogs in their care.  The available studies also indicate that participants show improvement in personal qualities such as empathy, self-esteem and a sense of responsibility.  These benefits are apparently related to a lower rate of recidivism for prison inmates who are directly involved in PDPs.  The effectiveness of prison based programs in training and socializing dogs is not well documented, although service animal organizations report much higher than normal acceptance rates from prison programs.  Recommendations are provided for further research that might serve to identify best practices and training approaches for both inmates and dogs.

ANZ 501 Final Paper – Prison Dog Programs – Reilly

Planning a Rescue Organization

I did this paper for one of my Masters program classes, in which we were asked to plan a rescue organization or shelter, assuming that we had $50K in seed money.  I decided to format the paper as a business plan, using the template recommended by HSUS.

I’d appreciate any comments or recommendations.

ANZ 524 Final Paper – Business Plan – Canine Ambassadors Foster Program – Reilly


How easy is it to own a dog in your area?

We were recently asked to examine the facilities and resources in our various regions that would enable a person with limited means or mobility to have a pet.  Here’s what I came up with:

Map It Exercise –  Rhode Island

The following is a summary of information I found in my home state of Rhode Island (RI), using the ANZ 524 rubric to assess the level of difficulty for a low-income person to keep a pet dog in this state.


Rhode Island has two types of housing assistance for qualifying persons: public housing, which is administered by the state; and housing subsidized under the federal HUD Section 8, which is managed by municipalities under state and federal guidelines.  Companion animals are not allowed in state-owned public housing.   Individual landlords who rent under Section 8 can make their own rules regarding pets, if they comply with federal laws regarding assistance animals.  Elderly and disabled persons can have pets, if they provide a deposit for any damage.  Landlords can implement breed restrictions for subsidized apartments at their discretion, within the limits of HUD requirements, and must comply with HUD guidelines on pet deposits.

There is a shortage of affordable housing in RI.  A May 2017 study estimated that 3,000 additional units will be needed in coming years.

I found twelve fenced, off-leash dog parks in RI.  They are scattered throughout the state and are easily accessible.

Veterinary Care

RI has no shortage of veterinarians, including specialists and emergency clinics.

The Rhode Island Veterinary Medical Association Companion Animal Foundation (RIVMA CAF) provides subsidized care, or vouchers for low-income pet owners.  It also provides grants for participating veterinarians to provide care for low income pet owners.  The Rhode Island Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RISPCA) has Marvin’s Fund, which provides assistance to eligible elderly and low-income pet owners, as well as the Pets In Need low cost veterinary clinic.

The RISPCA runs a low-cost clinic that provides full services and surgery for low-income pet owners.  In addition, the Potter League for Animals runs a monthly health clinic that offers low cost vaccinations, prescriptions and wellness checks.  PAAWS.org and the RI Community Spay/Neuter Clinic offer free spay and neuter services to needy owners.

Veterinarians are aware of these programs, but they are not well advertised. This is problematic, since owners who are not aware of the available aid will avoid taking their pets to the vet, assuming that they can’t afford care.

There are two local Trap/Neuter/Release programs that work in specific communities that have identified feral felines as a significant problem.

Training and behavior

I was unable to locate any training or behavioral assistance programs that are offered at no cost.  The lowest cost program that I could find was offered at PetCo and cost over $100 for six classes.  There are individual classes and behavioral consulting programs offered by certified professionals, however they tend to be very expensive.  A pet owner whose companion animal has a behavior problem has no affordable options in this state, which may compound the difficulty in finding housing.


RI does not have a commuter rail system, but does have an extensive bus network.  Companion animals are not allowed on public transportation in this state, except for the ferries that serve the island communities.

There are several private companies that offer pet taxi services operating in this state.  They are not subsidized or geared to low income customers, although they offer discounts for regular customers.  For the most part, pet owners must provide their own transportation.

 Basic Care

I found several food banks that provide pet food for qualifying pet owners.  These include the Providence Animal Rescue League, Maggie’s Pet Pantry and Animal Rescue Rhode Island; all of which provide pet food at no cost.  The food assistance is limited to dogs and cats (up to three pets per household), for up to six months.   This is truly basic assistance, providing food but no equipment or perishable supplies.

These programs are not well advertised.  A person without internet access would have trouble locating food assistance for their pets.


I should note that the veterinary and food bank programs are available to state residents who can provide evidence that they are receiving some form of public assistance.  This process of qualifying for assistance can take over 30 days, and can be extremely difficult for people who do not have transportation, internet access or a fixed address.  I have not found any temporary help or respite programs in this state that are based solely on financial need.  The only respite care that I found for companion animals was for owners fleeing domestic violence.

I found that support programs generally required low income people to travel to the places that are providing service.  I would like very much to see the veterinary and basic care programs deliver services to communities, reducing the need for car maintenance and fuel on the part of low income and senior pet owners.


Attachment:  Scoring Table for Rhode Island.


Category Criteria Score Comments
Housing Subsidized housing 2 Companion animals are not allowed in public housing, local landlord policies are applied in Section 8 subsidized housing, in keeping with federal regulations on service and support animals.  The Potter League for Animals provides respite housing for the pets of people who are hospitalized or displaced.
Housing Breed Restrictions 1 Landlords receiving housing subsidies are allowed to implement breed and size restrictions.
Housing Pet Deposits/Fees 2 Landlords receiving housing subsidies are given state guidelines for the maximum amount that can be charged.
Housing Areas for pet recreation (i.e. dog park)/”designated” pet areas 2 Most municipalities have at least one accessible dog park.
Veterinary Care Veterinarians within 20 miles 3 Numerous veterinarians throughout the area, with prices ranging from reasonable to very expensive.
Veterinary Care Discounts for those on assistance/Payment Plans/Care Credit/promissory notes 3 Low cost care is available from the Rhode Island Veterinary Medical Association Companion Animal Foundation (RIVMA CAF), and the RISPCA
Veterinary Care Other services for low income pet owners (e.g. clinics for S/N, vaccines, microchips etc.), vouchers for S/N, local non-profits 3 PAAWS.org and the Rhode Island Community Spay/Neuter Clinic provide free spay and neuter services.  In addition, the RISPCA has a low cost veterinary clinic that provides full services for low income patients.  The Potter League for animals has monthly health clinics that offer vaccinations, wellness checks, etc.
Veterinary Care Local programs for TNR, local public transit may or may not allow pet owners to use system to go to vet appointments 1 There are two local TNR programs that have internal capabilities for transport.  Companion animals are not allowed on public transport systems.
Training and Behavior Phone-Based Resources 0  None located.
Training and Behavior Training Classes 1 Low cost training is available through pet supply chain stores.
Training and Behavior In-Home Training 1 In home training is available, but is pricey
Training and Behavior Behavior Consulting* 1 Behavior consulting is available, but tends to be very expensive.
Transportation Public Transportation options 1 Companion animals are not allowed on public transportation, with the exception of ferries serving island communities.
Transportation Cost 1 The private companies that offer pet transportation are generally dog-walking services or pet taxis.  They have rates for regular customers, but are not discounted services.
Transportation Size/breed restrictions 3 The private companies do not have size restrictions
Transportation Flexibility of pick-up times/locations 3 The private companies have pick-up/drop-off services.
Basic Care Pet food bank and available supplies 1 There are several pet food banks for persons who qualify.  The Providence Animal Rescue League, Maggie’s Pet Pantry, and Animal Rescue Rhode Island all offer food assistance at no cost.  The services are limited to food for dogs and cats.
Basic Care Cost of goods 3 Pet food is offered at no cost to qualifying owners.
Basic Care Eligibility 2 The programs are open to all state residents who can provide qualifying information (proof of income, proof of receiving state assistance).
Basic Care Limitations on food 2 Although several pet pantries are active in Rhode Island, they provide service only for dogs and cats.  No such services are available for small or exotic animals.


I Hate People Syndrome…

(From a short project that I worked on recently)

There are several reasons that I can think of for shelter staff to be disappointed, frustrated or even infuriated by adopters or potential adopters, or people surrendering animals to the shelter.

There are people who consider pets to be disposable and replaceable.  The link to petrescuereport.com (below) describes how pet owners surrender their animals to shelters before going on vacations, or before having large parties or family events.  The shelters become overwhelmed with surrenders on a seasonal basis, while the former owners are off enjoying themselves.

Another point of frustration are the complaints from some potential adopters about the adoption process itself.  I’ve witnessed customers at our shelter who objected to the questionnaire and interview process, and considered them to be burdensome and unreasonable.   They seem to consider animals to be something that can be picked off a shelf, like a box of cereal, and aren’t open to the idea that the shelter staff are there to match them with the right pet.  Admittedly, some private rescues have very high hurdles that adopters must cross in order to take home a pet (as seen in the below Slate article), but most shelters are simply asking common-sense questions.

The biggest source of frustration has to be with people who simply lie.  They will turn in a pet, claiming that it is a stray in order to avoid paying a surrender fee.  They will lie about the reasons that a pet is being turned in, its age, its health (possibly out of guilt), and any behavior or temperament problems.  Adopters will lie about their family status, lease agreements, their living situation.  Dealing with this will inevitably wear on shelter staff.




Why are some sites successful in using social media?

(From a short project I recently completed)

From what I’ve been able to discern, the difference between successful and unsuccessful use of social media depends on an organization’s understanding of what’s involved in using it.  I’ve noticed that unsuccessful sites use social media simply as another means of publishing – pushing their website posts onto other formats.  One organization, which I don’t want to mention because I’m affiliated with it, simply tweets their Facebook posts without editing, so only the first 140 characters are tweeted.

On the other hand, the sites that are successful users of social media (if success is measured in online presence and number of followers) do not address it as an IT  or publishing issue. They treat social media as a way of developing a community, and understand that it must be a two-way flow of information that should grow organically.   A successful site follows other media feeds as well as having its own followers.  Subscribers must be allowed to post content, and have it linked to their own social media feeds.

One success story is The Dodo.  It is a three-year-old startup that deals with animal welfare.  It invites users to post images via Snapchat, post tweets and upload other content.  The Dodo has 16 million followers on its Facebook page, and over 5 hundred thousand followers on Twitter – while also following over 3 thousand Twitter feeds.  It has 1.2 milion followers on Instagram while following over 3 thousand Instagram feeds.  It’s still a startup, and I have not been able to find a business plan for it, but it is attracting investors simply based on its social media presence.




Another good example, with a much different history, is the Skeptics Guide to the Universe.  This site is dedicated to the advancement of science and critical thinking, and began as a weekly podcast in 2005.  It has since expanded and added an active user forum, Facebook presence and Twitter feed.  The SGU has over a million Facebook followers and 50 thousand followers on Twitter, while actively following 3 thousand individual twitter feeds.

Part of the SGU’s success lies in the fact that they also actively network with other organizations in the skeptic movement, attend each other’s events and broadcasts, and thereby share listeners and subscribers.  This is impressive for a group of 5 people, with some part-time IT help and day jobs, who get together once a week to discuss science.