In previous articles, I discussed the differences between dog trainers and behaviorists, and provided some insight into the various qualifications and professional organizations that are part of those professions. Today, we’ll talk about how to pick the right person.
To keep it simple, I’ll limit this post to picking the right trainer: What to look for and how to find one who meets your needs. Picking a behaviorist will have somewhat different criteria and I’ll discuss that in my next post. Note: This assumes that we get back to a more normal society in the coming months and can have in-person interactions more freely than we can at present. In the interim, there are a number of trainers who are providing very effective remote consulting, or one-on-one social-distanced training, during the pandemic. But, for our purposes today, lets hope for the future.
So. The first thing to do is ask around. In this business there is nothing as beneficial as word-of-mouth advertising. If one of your friends has a well-behaved and socialized dog, and had a good experience with a trainer, that’s definitely a plus. Not only do you get to see the dog’s interactions and behavior, but you and your friend will probably have some shared values about training methods and similar lifestyles.
Next, look at the trainers’ advertisements and see what qualifications they have. For example, if they have a CPDT-KA or CPDT-KSA certification, that means they have documented experience, have demonstrated skills and knowledge and – very importantly – are engaged in continuous education1. That said, when you see some letters after a trainer’s name, take the time to look that up and see what that certification actually means, what that certifying agency is. They’re not all the same. By the same token, when you see “member of ________” , take some time to look that up. Some professional organizations have stringent membership requirements in terms of qualifications and experience. Others, not so much.
After that, look at what they offer in terms of training styles. A trainer who is a member of the Association of Professional Dog Trainers, or holds most certifications, will adhere to the Least Intrusive, Minimally Aversive (LIMA) philosophy of training and behavior work. I’ll get into the details of this in a later post, but for our purposes today it means that the trainer adheres to professional standards that avoid any punishment-based training measures. If you see an advertisement of a trainer who promotes the use of punishment methods, such as e-collars2, I would consider that to be a red flag. Not only are aversive training methods contrary to ethical standards, but they have also been found to be damaging to dogs’ welfare and are less effective than positive training methods3. Similarly, I would advise looking carefully at a trainer who describes his program as “balanced”. This can often mean that this person is more prone to implement punishment as a training measure, instead of as a last resort.
If your trainer uses phrases such as “pack”, “authority”, “Alpha” or other terms related to a dominance hierarchy, this can mean that he is using outdated and discredited training methods4. This points out the advantage of hiring trainers who are maintaining a certification and are required to keep current on developments in the field.
Trainers will offer a variety of environments for you and your dog. They may offer anything from group classes, structured playtime for socialization, individual one-on-one training, or board-and-train programs. They may have a facility for conducting classes, or they may come to your house to offer individualized programs. Each of these approaches have advantages for dog owners.
If your dog is new in your house, regardless of his/her age, I recommend taking part in a group training session. This is a good social and bonding event for you and your dog, and also gives you a chance to learn about how well he is socialized with other dogs in a controlled and safe environment. Again, read reviews and get recommendations before picking a program.
One-on-one programs are particularly useful for specific training in your home environment, such as loose-leash walking, greeting strangers, or other activities that don’t require a social setting but are centered on you interacting directly with your dog.
Board and train facilities, or doggy-daycare facilities that provide training can be very favorable for working people who don’t have a lot of spare time. However, these programs must include the dogs’ owners in the training. Your dog isn’t a car that can be dropped off at a mechanic. A good facility such as this will involve the owner in training and provide work to do at home.
Lastly, interview the trainers that you are considering and tour their facilities. They should provide their rates up front, along with details of their training program; and information about their business license, insurance and bonding. Find out if they are affiliated with any shelters or rescues and ask for references.
Every person and every pet have individual needs and personalities. One size does not fit all. But this will hopefully help in identifying the kind of trainer you need.
Next up: What to look for in a canine behaviorist.
1 How to become a certified dog trainer – CCPDT
2 China, Mills & Cooper (2020), Efficacy of Dog Training With and Without Remote Electronic Collars vs. a Focus on Positive Reinforcement. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 7 (2020). doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00508
3 Fernandes, Olssen & Vierira de Castro (2017), Do Aversive-based Training Methods Actually Compromise Dog Welfare?: A Literature Review. Applied Animal Behavior Science 196 (2017). 1 – 12, doi: 10.1016/j.applanim 2017.07.001
4 The Dominance Controversy – Dr. Sophia Yin