It’s Tick Season
If you live pretty much anywhere in the United States, you are in tick country. These little parasite arachnids are not only a pest, they present a serious health risk for both humans and their pets. There are numerous tick species in the US that present varying levels of threats to us, our pets and wildlife (Mayo Clinic, 2021). I’ll be discussing what they are and how they feed in for a little bit; if you’re a little squeamish you might want to skip down a couple of paragraphs.
What are they?
Basically, they’re bloodsuckers. They are opportunistic feeders that are found in tall grass, low-hanging bushes and leaf litter, along the edges of wooded areas and in gardens; that will crawl onto any animal that brushes up against the plant material they’re using at the time (New York State, 2011). Once a tick finds itself on a promising host animal, it will crawl to a protected area on that animals skin and plant its mouth into the skin. The tick then injects its saliva into the bite, alternating with sucking blood from its victim. The saliva facilitates feeding by suppressing any local pain or immune system response, allowing it to remain attached and feeding for days at a time. This saliva also acts as a transmission mechanism for various tick-borne pathogens (Bonnet, Kazimírová, Richardson & Šimo, 2018). The tick will remain attached for up to 10 days, while it becomes engorged on its hosts blood before dropping off.
Aside from feeding off their hosts, ticks present a serious danger. They are a disease vector for a number of diseases, such as Lyme Disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, along with others, that can affect both us and our pets (CDC, 2020). These illnesses are contracted by the ticks’ victims as the ticks remain attached while feeding.
How to Prevent Tick Bites
There are a number of things you can do to protect your pets from ticks:
First off: Keep your lawns mowed and gardens trimmed to reduce the risk of ticks being present in them. Clear any piles of leaves or brush. Don’t allow your pets to roam in areas where ticks are likely to be found. If possible, put a fence around your yard to prevent deer from visiting and depositing ticks.
Second: If your pets have been in an area with low plants or high grass, check them for ticks. In fact, check them regularly. As I said above, ticks tend to attach themselves to dogs in protected areas, including in the ears, around the base of the tail, under their front legs, on their bellies, and a few others (CDC, 2019). Your pets can also be treated with topical sprays and powders to kill any ticks they may have picked up. However, you should consult your veterinarian before using any such preventatives regularly.
Third: Have your veterinarian prescribe a flea and tick preventative and keep your pets on them year-round. It is important to follow your vets’ advice in this and obtain these medications from a trusted source.
- Your vet should be fully knowledgeable of any medications that your dogs is currently taking and is the best source for understanding the risks to your dog. He is in the best position to know what particular flea and tick medications should be prescribed. For example, collies and related breeds often have a genetic anomaly that causes a deadly reaction to the drug Ivermectin; and preventatives that contain Ivermectin should be avoided in dogs with this genetic condition. Your vet will be able to ensure that you are using safe and effective preventatives. Also, as discussed in my March 2021 article on Seresto collars (March, 2021 | The Animal Nerd), medications are also prescribed based on your dogs size and related factors. This is something that is best left to professionals.
- There have been frequent reports of counterfeit pet medications being marketed to pet owners, with ingredients that can range from being completely ineffective to downright dangerous. Use trusted sources, such as your veterinarian or a reputable pharmacy for flea and tick preventatives, along with all of your pets’ other medications (EPA, 2004).
- Another reason to use veterinarian-prescribed preventatives from trusted sources is that they are proven effective and safe. There are a number of internet sources that cite “natural” or “home-made” tick preventatives, with no evidence that they are either safe or effective. Look for preventatives that have “Approved by the FDA” on their label (Roberts, 2018).
Fourth: Have your dog inoculated against Lyme Disease. There is a safe and effective Lyme vaccine that will keep your dog protected from that tick-borne illness.
What to do if you find a tick on your pet?
So, if you find a tick on your pet, what do you do? Remove it as quickly and safely as possible.
Using a fine-tipped tweezers, grip the tick firmly by the head at the point where it is attached to your pet’s skin, and gently and firmly pull it upward and away. Do not squeeze the ticks’ body as that can cause infectious material or pathogens to be injected into your pet. And do not twist while pulling, as that can result in the tick’s mouth breaking off and remaining in the dog (Although this sounds gross, it is not a big deal. If they’re left in the dog, the mouth parts will eventually dry up and fall away, or you can just remove them like a splinter. Still, its best to avoid this happening.)
You can also buy special tools such as “tick keys”, which are small devices that you can use to safely pull the tick away from your pet’s skin. One advantage to these items is that they can be carried on your key chain for handy use.
Once the tick has been removed and disposed of (e.g., flushed), keep an eye on the site of the bite for a few days. Normally, there will be a small rash or skin irritation that clears up within a couple of days. However, if a circular red rash or a bulls-eye rash persists, consult your veterinarian as that can be an indication of a disease process or infection.
And, lastly, be familiar with the general symptoms of tick-borne diseases. This is important for your family and your pets. I can tell you from personal experience that these are serious medical conditions that can severely harm your pet.
Bonnet, S., Kazimírová, M., Richardson, J. and Šimo, L. (2018). Tick Saliva and Its Role in Pathogen Transmission. In N. Boulanger (Ed.), Skin and Arthropod Vectors , Academic Press, London, UK
CDC (2019a). Ticks, On Pets. Retrieved from Preventing ticks on your pets | Ticks | CDC
CDC (2019b). Symptoms of Tickborne Illness. Retrieved from Symptoms of Tickborne Illness | Ticks | CDC
CDC (2020). Diseases Transmitted by Ticks. Retrieved from Diseases Transmitted by Ticks | Ticks | CDC
EPA (2004). Fact Sheet: Retailers and Counterfeit Pet Products. Retrieved from U.S. EPA – Fact Sheet – Retailers and Counterfeit Pet Products
Mayo Clinic (2021). Slide Show: Guide to Different Tick Species and the Diseases They Carry. Retrieved from www.mayoclinic.org/tick-species/sis-20147911?s-8
New York State (2011). Be Tick Free – A Guide to Preventing Lyme Disease. Retrieved from Be Tick Free – A Guide for Preventing Lyme Disease (ny.gov)
Roberts, C. (2018). Should You Use Natural Tick Prevention for Your Dog or Cat? Consumer Reports. Retrieved from Use Natural Tick Prevention for Dog or Cat? – Consumer Reports